In the chemical and pharmaceutical industries, bulk materials with specific explosive characteristics are usually processed. During industrial production, small particles are released into the air from the bulk material. As the air moves, the particles swirl and easily reach explosive concentrations. A dangerous explosion occurs when the combustible dust comes into contact with an effective initiation source.
These industries process a wide range of materials with different levels of explosiveness and are very easy to ignite. When flammable vapors combine with dust, it forms an explosive mixture that may be ignited by electrostatic discharge, mechanical overheating, or chemical reaction. In the pharmaceutical process, high-value drugs are often produced in smaller manufacturing processes.
In the chemical and pharmaceutical industries, the bulk material is handled during production. From these materials or substances, small dust particles with specific explosive traits are released into the air. Inside and around industrial production technologies, a fine powder mixed with air creates an explosive concentration. The occurrence of, for example, a mechanical spark, a static discharge, or heat from the surrounding surfaces in the same space can lead to an inevitable consequence - a sharp local increase in energy, heat, and pressure.
Ignition and subsequent explosion occur if the following conditions are met at the same time at the same space:
At present, it is technologically possible to identify all imminent risks in advance. The obligation to apply appropriate preventive measures is imposed by the ATEX 153 directive, which achieves the protection of human lives and production technology from the devastating consequences of an explosion.
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